What Animals Eat Prairie Dogs?

what animals eat prairie dogs

Prairie dogs are relatively common in many regions of North America and are an essential part of the ecosystem in these areas. Prairie dogs help keep the food chain balance, as they prevent many types of grass and plants from becoming overgrown, but what eats the prairie dogs? What are the prairie dog’s natural predators?

Predatory carnivores eat prairie dogs, including ferrets, badgers, foxes, rattlesnakes, eagles, hawks, mountain lions, coyotes, weasels, and bobcats. In addition, all canines, large felines, large birds of prey, large snakes, and all mustelids eat prairie dogs. 

Prairie dogs are small rodents, which means that several animals eat them. Unfortunately, all small rodents are prey to several larger predators, and prairie dogs are no exception. 

Let’s identify the various animals that prey on prairie dogs to understand how these rodents fit into the food chain. 

Which Animals Eat Prairie Dogs?

Prairie dogs are a common prey item for many animals. These rodents are so widespread in the southern parts of North America that there are several natural predators known to hunt and eat them. 

These relatively small and slow animals make them ideal prey for many carnivores. However, the prairie dog is a master burrower and remains underground for protection. 

This significantly limits the number of predators that actively hunt these rodents. 

The prairie dog is also diurnal, meaning it is only active during the day, further reducing the animals that hunt them, as fewer predators actively hunt during the day. 

However, most predators are opportunistic hunters, so they will catch a prairie dog whenever possible. Some predators rely solely on the prairie dog as a food source, but most will hunt prairie dogs when the opportunity is presented rather than actively hunting them every day. 

The natural predators of prairie dogs include:

  • Hawks
  • Foxes
  • Badgers
  • Bobcats
  • Weasels
  • Ferrets
  • Eagles
  • Snakes
  • Coyotes
  • Mountain Lions
  • Falcons
  • Harriers

These animals, among others, have been well-documented as prairie dog predators. However, the predators that eat prairie dogs vary depending on the region, as these rodents are widespread and eaten by many animals. 

Can Prairie Dogs Defend Themselves Against Predators?

Prairie dogs have several defense tactics against predators, as these animals have excellent hearing, a great sense of smell, and incredible eyesight. They can detect predators from far away and will call out to other prairie dogs to warn of the predators’ presence. 

Some of the most successful prairie dog predators are the ones that can sneak up on rodents without being noticed. These include animals that hunt at night and birds of prey that can hunt from high enough to avoid detection. 

If a prairie dog notices a predator, it will quickly alert other prairie dogs in the area and immediately retreat underground for protection. 

Which Animals Are The Biggest Predators?

Several carnivores are prevalent hunters of prairie dogs, as these rodents are usually abundantly available and provide excellent nutrition for predators. But some hunt prairie dogs more than others. 

The most effective hunters of prairie dogs are ferrets, foxes, badgers, and snakes. These animals are effective hunters since they can catch prairie dogs on the ground and underground.


Ferrets are nocturnal, so they can easily surprise prairie dogs and are small enough to hunt them in their burrows. These animals hunt when the prairie dogs are resting underground, making them highly effective predators. 

Foxes And Badgers

Foxes and badgers are relentless predators, with the tenacity to pursue their prey day or night. Their speed, intelligence, and cunning make them highly proficient hunters. 

They hunt prairie dogs by excavating their burrows before chasing them down.  


Snakes such as rattlesnakes are excellent prairie dog hunters, as these are ambush predators that can sense where the prairie dogs travel, even when the rodents are not in the area. 

Specialized heat pits and scent detectors possessed by snakes allow them to position themselves where the prairie dogs walk and wait for them to come by. 

These snakes have highly effective camouflage to prevent detection and can lie in wait for days until the perfect opportunity to strike. 

Snakes are shockingly effective rodent hunters and are very well adapted to hunting prairie dogs. Some snakes will even enter prairie dog burrows to hunt them. 

Do Prairie Dogs Have The Same Predators Everywhere?

Prairie dogs are ubiquitous rodents in the wilds of North America, meaning they have a vast range of animals that eat them but are the predators of prairie dogs the same in every region?

The reality is that prairie dogs are rodents. The same carnivorous predators that eat rodents in every region will eat prairie dogs, and the same types of predators eat prairie dogs everywhere they are found. 

Carnivores such as big cats, canines, mustelids, and larger birds of prey, including eagles, vultures, and hawks, as well as giant snakes, all eat prairie dogs wherever they live. 

The specific species of animals that eat prairie dogs vary depending on the region, but the same types of predators everywhere eat them. 

Which Predators Rely On Prairie Dogs for Food?

Several predators rely on prairie dogs for food, but no predators need prairie dogs more than the black-footed ferret. 

The black-footed ferret is highly endangered due to several factors, but this animal relies almost entirely on prairie dogs as a food source. More than 90% of this ferret’s diet is prairie dogs; without these rodents, the black-footed ferret would starve. 

This ferret species is adapted perfectly for hunting prairie dogs and is so effective that it is often referred to as the ‘prairie dog killer.’

No predators are more effective at hunting prairie dogs, and no predators rely more on prairie dogs than the black-footed ferret. 

Final Word

Prairie dogs are intriguing little rodents, and they form a significant aspect of the diet of many North American predators. In addition, these rodents form an essential link in the food chain and help to sustain many other animals. 

Prairie dogs are a food source for many predators, but in certain areas of the region, people also eat them. Few rodents are as crucial to their local ecosystems as the prairie dog. 

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